Rushville, IN, USA

y-DNA and Haplotype

A haplogroup is a genetic population of people who share a common ancestor on the paternal or the maternal line. In this case it is the paternal line (y-DNA) that is of importance here because it gives us a better picture of our ancient HAMOND* origins. Haplogroups are assigned letters of the alphabet, and refinements consist of additional number and letter combinations. Haplogroups also relate to our ancient ancestry. By ancient ancestry we are talking about thousands to tens of thousands of years ago. At one time haplogroups 'I' and 'J' were one group. A mutation occured about 43,000 years ago that split this group into haplogroup 'I' and haplogroup 'J'. In order to be a new group or subgroup this same mutation has to be passed down generation after generation. Another mutation occured about 30,000 years ago in haplogroup 'J' that split the group into 'J1' and 'J2'.

One of the ways knowing our haplogroup helps us is it separates us from the other HAMOND* trees. DNA testing of 15 men (including myself) has confirmed that our HAMOND* tree belongs to the haplogroup J and more specifically J-M172 (formerly designated as J2b2). Separations between and within haplogroups are determined by genetic mutations.

There are several different HAMOND* family trees whose most distant known ancestor (MDKA) is from England and none of these trees are related to each other from a recent genetic standpoint. Most of these HAMOND* trees belong to the haplogroup 'R', with 'R' being one of the most common haplogroups among all European men, and haplogroup 'I'. We are the only HAMOND* family tree that belongs to 'J' and therefore quite distinctive and easy to separate between the various English HAMOND* families.

Haplogroups 'I' and 'J' have their highest frequencies in Scandinavia (especially haplogroup 'I'), Balkans, Anatolia (Turkey), Middle East, and coastal North Africa.

Entirely within the Balkan Peninsula:

Mostly or partially within the Balkan Peninsula:

While mutations will eventually create many different branches, I will only follow the one that affects our HAMOND* family tree.

The next mutation in haplogroup J-M304 gave rise to J-M172 (J2). It is thought that J-M172 (J2) may have originated between the Caucasus Mountains, Mesopotamia and the Levant. It is estimated that this occured between 29,000 and 34,000 years ago.


The next major mutation gave rise to J-M102 (J2b). The oldest known J2b sample comes from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic site of Tepe Abdul Hosein in western Iran, dating from approximately 10,000 years ago; however, it is estimated that the actual mutation occurred roughly 25,700 to 30,100 years ago. This is the strongest evidence that J2b actually originated in the mountains of the Zagros or the Caucasus, rather than in the plains of the Fertile Crescent. The vast majority of J2b lineages belong to J2b2 and its subclades.


Here is a table of our haplogroup and subclade tree.


(3): TMRCA stands for The Most Recent Common Ancestor.




Old Designation1

Date Range of Mutation2

Date to TMRCA3



42,400-46,400 years ago




40,300-45,700 years ago

34,000-29,200 years ago



29,200-34,000 years ago

25,700-30,100 years ago



25,700-30,100 years ago

14,100-17,500 years ago



12,400-15,200 years ago

8,400-10,700 years ago



8,400-10,700 years ago

4,700-6,800 years ago



3,500-5,100 years ago

3,400-4,900 years ago



3,400-4,900 years ago

3,400-4,600 years ago



3,300-4,500 years ago

2,400-3,200 years ago



2,400-3,200 years ago

2,400-3,200 years ago



2,400-3,200 years ago

2,200-3,200 years ago



2,200-3,200 years ago

2,200-3,200 years ago

(1): Some still use the old designations, but they do start to become very long, which probably prompted the change.

(2): The Date Range of Mutation comes from are listed with a confidence of 95%.


How I know I belong to these haplogroups is because I have been tested for each of them.  A few other HAMOND* cousins have also tested for many of these and tested positive for them, as they should.  They are called SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphs or snips).


Our ancient ancestors who belonged to haplogroups J-Z1296/97/98, J-Z631, J-Z1043/48, J-Z8424/29, and J-CT11760 were all alive during the Pharaonic Egyptian Dynasties.


Almost all of the European J2b2 members all share a common ancestor who lived 6,000 years ago and 99% of us share a common ancestor who lived 4,500 years ago.
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Rodney R. Hammons

433 N Main Street
Rushville, IN 46173


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