DNA

Click on one of these links to jump to sections of interest. Haplogroup - DNA Markers - Frequency Chart

 

DNA is an important tool in the genealogical toolbox. While opening graves and exhuming bodies for genealogical purposes is unacceptable, it has been greatly beneficial for linking people and family lines through living donors. DNA is widely used in forensics to identify individuals through their genetic makeup and is accepted as definitive proof of identification by the judicial system. Each individual's DNA is unique (except for identical twins), but it doesn't take the entire genetic profile to determine if individuals are related. Our own family tree has benefited greatly from DNA testing. Multiple individuals have discovered we are related without prior knowledge of the other's existence. DNA has also benefited us in another large way.

 

In the late 1600's there were two John Hammon(d) Sr.'s living in the same area of Virginia. Our ancestor was John Hammon, Sr. (ca. 1610-1700) and the other was a John Hammond, Sr. Many people working on their genealogy has made a bad assumption that these two were the same individual. The son of our John Hammon, Sr. was Ambrose (1647-1694) and a son of John Hammond, Sr. was Job. Many times I have found people's information stating that Ambrose and Job were the same individual. I have seen it as Ambrose (Job?) and vice-versa. It wasn't until individuals claiming lineage from the various branches had their DNA's tested that it was clear there were two different family trees commingled. After much effort those two trees have now been separated, thanks in large part to DNA.

 

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a complex science and a major scientific discipline. There will be no effort made here to explain the science behind it. Suffice it to say that DNA defines who we are and can be used to help trace where we came from; from a distance ancestry prospective.

 

There are several DNA testing services available. The one I chose and the one most of us used is Family Tree DNA. I have been in contact with DNA-relatives that used another site and when we compare our DNA results, we were related. For that reason I have included my DNA results at the bottom for those who have used other sites and wish to compare results to see if we are related.

 

Your religious background may or may not allow you to believe how DNA is used to track the progress of man across the globe. The genetics of man shows that he started in Africa and some time in the distant past (ca. 60,000 years ago) moved out of Africa into the Middle East. Our particular family group moved into the Fertile Crescent before moving into the Balkan regions of southeast Europe. This has been determined because our DNA is made up of genetic material that groups us into a broad category called a haplogroup. Our haplogroup is J. There are many haplogroups and sub groupings. Our group is further divided, based on our DNA, as J2b2. I have had my haplogroup testing done several times as new and better testing allows for more accurate sub grouping. Currently, though presently unofficial, my (and any Ham(m)on(d)(s) related to me) haplogroup is J2b2a1a1.

 

What haplogroup testing has done for us is further distinguish us from the other Hammond families of England. Most Hammond families of England fall in two haplogroups, "R" and "I". These are two of the most common northeastern European haplogroups. Our distinction of belonging to the haplogroup "J" pretty much eliminates us as descendants of Vikings or Saxons or Angles. Normans were originally Vikings who settled in northern France, giving name to Normandy. While over time the name Normans became a generic name for anyone living in that area, true Vikings would have passed down their "R" or "I" haplogroup DNA. We could be descendants of Normans, but probably not from the Viking line.

Here is an email I received concerning questions I asked a researcher about our possible origins.

 

Hello Rodney,

 

I can say with confidence in your case that you are almost certainly not descended from the Anglo-Saxons or Danes.  That claim likely belongs to the other HAMMOND in the Project descended from Simon Sr. also of Scarning, c1670.  He is haplogroup I1a.

 

(note: the other HAMMOND in the Project that is a descendant of Simon Hammond Sr. is Jim Main’s cousin.  It was this DNA testing that confirmed that we are not related to Jim Mains and his cousin. - RRH)

 

Everything about your haplotype points to the eastern Mediterranean .  When looking at your YHRD matches it is important to do so in terms of frequency of occurrence in each population not the number of matches.  The attached spreadsheet (see below) shows your matches in these terms.  You will see immediately that four of the top five locations by frequency are in Sicily (western half island near Palermo ).  Condensing your matches by country shows Sicily on top with a frequency of 4.2%.  I counted Sicily as its own country on purpose since it is an island.  The rest of your Italian matches are all in northern Italy .  Condensing your match further by European region shows the highest frequency of matches in the Balkans.  Most of the Balkan countries are in your top 10.  Relatively speaking, your 7-marker haplotype is very, very sparse in the rest of Europe .  If your ancestors were Anglo-Saxon or Scandinavian, western Europe (including Iberia and northwest Europe ) would come out on top.

 

SMGF is some help here.  You have five reasonably close matches (4) 23/26 + (1) 22/25 in SMGF.  One is from Corinth , Greece , two from southern Italy ( Calabria in the "toe" and Taranto in the "heel") and one from Alsace-Lorraine on the French/German border.  The match from Taranto , Italy is the most significant since it matches your DYS385(a,b)=(12,17), which sets you apart from the Haplogroup J2e1* (M102+) 12-marker model.  In YSearch, you have a 26/32 match from Wurttemburg in southeast Germany near the border with Alsace-Lorraine. (* - since renamed J2b2)

 

Northwest Europe is also represented through a number of geographic projects hosted by FTDNA such as the Scandinavia , Germany , Denmark , Danish Demes, French Heritage, Benelux , and Flemish Flanders DNA Projects.  There are 36 J2's out of 1058 haplotypes (20 French, 12 German) from all these Projects combined, never mind one that looks close to yours.  2 of these 36 are confirmed J2e1's (1 French, 1 Finnish) but not close to you.

 

I believe we have a pretty good picture of your paternal ancestry up to about 2,000 years ago.  The concentration of your matches in the above database suggest your ancient ancestors settled in the Balkans from the Middle East (where J originates) before heading to southern Italy ( Sicily ?).  The question is how did they get from there to  East Anglia ?  The most likely paths I see your forefathers arriving in East Anglia along are:

 

- with the Romans circa 60 BC. - 400 A.D.

- with the Normans circa 1100 A.D.  [the Normans conquered Sicily and southern Italy by 1053]

- as an Italian Merchant circa 1100 - 1500 A.D.

 

The origins of the HAMON surname amongst the Normans may support the Norman connection.   I am personally intrigued with the Norman connection between East Anglia and Sicily .  There are other distinctive YDNA haplotypes in the Project amongst the I1a's and R1b1c's that show up in both regions.   Your family should look for paper evidence of HAMON(D)s in Sicily around the time the Normans were there.

 

Genetically speaking, Norwegians, Swedes, Geats, Danes, Jutes, Angles and Saxons are indistinguishable at present for individual genealogy research.  We can only speak in terms of populations.  There are some I1a haplotypes that are found at high frequencies in Norway , while others are concentrated in northern Germany and Denmark .  I1c is concentrated in Germany likely connected to the Saxons.  They are largely an admixture of R1b1c, I1a and I1c.  Finding such distinctive genetic markers are something of a Holy Grail for British descended genetic genealogists.  It is certainly a goal I hope the East Anglia Project can help to achieve.

 

I hope this helps.  Let me know if you have any other questions I can help with.

 

Cheers, David.

 

David Weston

Project Administrator

East Anglia Geographic DNA Project

COUNTRY

SIZE

# MATCHES

FREQUENCY

Sicily

96

4

4.17%

Belarus

30

1

3.33%

Greece

69

2

2.90%

Bosnia-Herzegovina

35

1

2.86%

Macedonia

343

9

2.62%

Albania

131

3

2.29%

Russia

176

3

1.70%

Bulgaria

122

2

1.64%

Hungary

315

5

1.59%

Romania

386

6

1.55%

Netherlands

137

2

1.46%

Italy

1188

14

1.18%

Portugal

210

2

0.95%

Austria

230

2

0.87%

UK

250

2

0.80%

Bohemia

252

2

0.79%

Spain

292

2

0.68%

Switzerland

149

1

0.67%

Croatia

150

1

0.67%

Germany

4795

31

0.65%

Slovakia

164

1

0.61%

Slovenia

180

1

0.56%

Poland

2346

12

0.51%

Sweden

442

2

0.45%

Norway

870

2

0.23%

 

 

 

 

REGION

SIZE

# MATCHES

FREQUENCY

Southeastern Europe (Balkans)

802

17

2.12%

Italian Peninsula

137

2

1.46%

Eastern Europe

5333

38

0.71%

Western Europe

6315

44

0.70%

Scandinavia

1312

4

0.30%

 

Below are my markers compared to a descendant of John Hammond, Sr., and a third Hammond family tree. The differences between my markers and John Hammond, Sr. are in red, which clearly shows those two John Hammon(d) Sr.'s in Virginia in the late 1600's were not related. The third individual differences are in blue, showing even more genetic differences.

 

DYS Markers 1-25

 
393
390
394
391
385a
385b
426
388
439
389-1
392
389-2
458
459a
459b
455
454
447
437
488
449
464a
464b
464c
464d
Me
12
24
15
10
12
17
11
15
11
12
11
28
16
8
9
11
11
27
16
19
29
12
15
15
18
John Hammond
13
22
14
10
13
14
11
14
11
12
11
28
15
8
9
8
11
23
16
20
28
12
14
15
16
R1b1b2
13
24
14
11
11
14
12
12
13
13
13
29
18
9
9
11
11
25
15
19
30
15
15
17
17

 

 

 

DYS Markers 26-37

 
460
GATA-H4
YCA-IIa
YCA-IIb
456
607
576
570
CDY-a
CDY-b
442
438
Me
11
10
19
20
13
14
17
18
38
38
11
9
John Hammond, Sr.
 10
10
19
21
15
14
17
19
36
36
12
10
R1b1b2
11
13
19
23
16
15
17
18
37
37
12
12

 

 

 

 

DYS Markers 38-47

 
531
578
395S1a
395S1b
590
537
641
472
406S1
511
Me
11
8
15
17
8
12
10
8
13
9
Martin Hammond, Sr.
11
8
15
15
8
12
10
8
9
9
R1b1b2
11
9
15
16
8
10
10
8
10
10

 

 

 

 

DYS Markers 48-67

 
425
413a
413b
557
594
436
490
534
450
444
481
420
446
617 568 487 572 640 492 565
Me
11
8
15
17
8
12
10
8
13
9
23
20
12
12
11
14
10
13
12
11
Martin Hammond, Sr.
12
23
23
15
10
12
12
16
8
13
28
20
12
13
11
12
10
11
12
11
R1b1b2
12
23
23
16
10
12
12
16
8
12
22
20
13
12
11
13
11
11
14
12

 

 

 

 

Internal Links

Ancient Ancestry
DNA
Databases
Ham(m)on(d)(s) Veterans
Photocopies • Wills
Rod Hammons Genealogy
In Memory of Fallen Ham(m)on(d)(s)
Cousins Table

 

External Links*

Family Tree DNA
Ancestry.com
ySearch
Hammon Family Genealogy Forum
Mid-Norfolk Family History Society
Norfolk Family History Society

* External links take you away from this site and whose content I have no control over.

 

Contact Info

Rodney R. Hammons

433 N Main St

Rushville, Indiana 46173-1637

Phone: 337.499.8674